All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Short Communication - (2021) Volume 11, Issue 11

Poly-pharmacy in Psychiatric practice, etiology and potential consequences

Psychiatric polypharmacy is defined as the use of two or more drugs in the treatment of a psychiatric condition. It is widely prevalent in clinical practice. The rationale for polypharmacy is not clear. Etiologic factors are patient demographics (age, gender, race, low socio-economic status), personality disorder, psychiatric conditions (psychosis, schizophrenia, affective or mood disorders), comorbidities, severity of disease, treatmentrefractoriness, prescribing practice, inpatient or outpatient setting, concern for reduction of extra-pyramidal and other side effects. Among children and adolescents’ the polypharmacy correlates are age (13 -15 years), male gender, caucasian race, low socio-economic status, medicaid or public insurance, disability, and foster care or child custody outside of biological family. Pediatric polypharmacy is also associated with a diagnosis of behavioral disorder, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorder, violence, tics, psychosis, affective and mood disorder. The concurrent administration of multiple drugs increases the risk of drug interactions and adverse effect including morbidity and mortality. Psychiatric polypharmacy is also associated with cumulative toxicity, poor medication adherence and treatment non-compliance. Thus, psychiatric polypharmacy poses a significant public health problem. However, not all polypharmacy is harmful. Polypharmacy is proven to be beneficial in patients with psychotic, mood or affective disorder having dual diagnosis with substance abuse, personality disorder (obsessive compulsive) and comorbid conditions including thyroid, pain or seizure disorder. Combination therapy with different class of drugs antidepressants or antipsychotics with different mechanism of action have beneficial therapeutic consequences. Therefore, a better understanding of physicians’ rationale for polypharmacy, patient tolerability and effectiveness of prescribing strategy is needed to guide practitioners and to inform the development of evidence based treatment guidelines. Here we review the problem of polypharmacy in psychiatric patients, describe possible etiologic factors, associated consequences and provide recommendations for promoting beneficial polypharmacy and reducing harmful polypharmacy in clinical practice.

Abstract

Psychiatric polypharmacy is defined as the use of two or more drugs in the treatment of a psychiatric condition. It is widely prevalent in clinical practice. The rationale for polypharmacy is not clear. Etiologic factors are patient demographics (age, gender, race, low socio-economic status), personality disorder, psychiatric conditions (psychosis, schizophrenia, affective or mood disorders), comorbidities, severity of disease, treatmentrefractoriness, prescribing practice, inpatient or outpatient setting, concern for reduction of extra-pyramidal and other side effects. Among children and adolescents’ the polypharmacy correlates are age (13 -15 years), male gender, caucasian race, low socio-economic status, medicaid or public insurance, disability, and foster care or child custody outside of biological family. Pediatric polypharmacy is also associated with a diagnosis of behavioral disorder, autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorder, violence, tics, psychosis, affective and mood disorder. The concurrent administration of multiple drugs increases the risk of drug interactions and adverse effect including morbidity and mortality. Psychiatric polypharmacy is also associated with cumulative toxicity, poor medication adherence and treatment non-compliance. Thus, psychiatric polypharmacy poses a significant public health problem. However, not all polypharmacy is harmful. Polypharmacy is proven to be beneficial in patients with psychotic, mood or affective disorder having dual diagnosis with substance abuse, personality disorder (obsessive compulsive) and comorbid conditions including thyroid, pain or seizure disorder. Combination therapy with different class of drugs antidepressants or antipsychotics with different mechanism of action have beneficial therapeutic consequences. Therefore, a better understanding of physicians’ rationale for polypharmacy, patient tolerability and effectiveness of prescribing strategy is needed to guide practitioners and to inform the development of evidence based treatment guidelines. Here we review the problem of polypharmacy in psychiatric patients, describe possible etiologic factors, associated consequences and provide recommendations for promoting beneficial polypharmacy and reducing harmful polypharmacy in clinical practice.

antalya escort

izmir rus escort

bursa escort bayan

antalya escort bayanlar

izmir escort

porno indir

porno izle

mobil porno

eskişehir escort

burdur escort

bartın escort

havalandırma

türk takipçi satın al

smmabi.com

takipbonus.com

izmir escort

bursa escort

türk porno

escort bayan

yabanci porno

takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

instagram takipçi satın al

instagram beğeni satın al

adana escort

takipçi satın alma

izmir escort

konya escort

instagram takipçi satın al

porno

instagram takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

spotify takipçi

tiktok takipçi satın al

instagram keşfet satın al

escort feke

takipçi satın al instagram

takipçi instagram satın al

eskişehir bayan escort

bursa escort bayan

smm gerçek panel

etiler escort

soğanlı escort

erenköy escort

maslak escort

küçükyalı escort

ortaköy escort

bostancı escort

taksim escort

çağlayan escort

eyüpsultan escort

kozyatağı escort

nişantaşı escort

anadolu yakası escort

avrupa yakası escort

bahçelievler escort

silivri escort

kadıköy escort

beylikdüzü escort

şile escort

esenler escort

paper io

agario

oversatt

Elektronik Sigara