All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.


Treatment-refractory schizophrenia: what is it and what has been done about it?

Author(s): Leslie Citrome

There has been a veritable explosion of research conducted for interventions that may be advantageous for the management of treatment-refractory schizophrenia. After a discussion of how to define treatment resistance or treatment refractoriness, obstacles to its accurate identification are presented. Randomized clinical trials that have tested antipsychotic monotherapies, antipsychotic combination therapies, nonantipsychotic augmentation strategies and nonpharmacological interventions are catalogued. Although clozapine has been a landmark medication, attempts to augment it have not resulted in any further breakthroughs of the same magnitude. Some logical candidates for augmentation have not been successful, including anticholinesterase inhibitors and other agents used to treat cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Antipsychotic combinations have resulted in incremental improvements at best. Research being done with antidepressant medications and with agents that impact on the glutamate receptor holds the greatest promise at this time.


Share this       
izmir escort bayan izmir rus escort bursa escort bayan rus escort izmir escort porno indir porno izle mobil porno eskişehir escort burdur escort bartın escort havalandırma türk takipçi satın al izmir escort bursa escort türk porno escort bayan