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The overlap and co-occurrence of Neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in children with mild intellectual disability: A UK study

Author(s): Amani Osman Hassan

Background: Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Intellectual Disabilities (ID), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Tic disorder, are a group of conditions with onset in the developmental period, which are characterized by a range of deficits with or without impairments. This may vary from limited to global impairment affecting various components. Aim: Is to detect prevalence of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, mainly Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in mild intellectually disabled (ID) children in community Paediatric settings. Methods: Data was analyzed for 69 children, 4-11 years, (54 males and 15 females), who were recruited for the Study of Learning Ability, Development and Genes (SLADG). They had an IQ below 70 but above 50, no genetic syndromes and no known cause for ID. The parents were given four questionnaires to complete: the Developmental Behaviour Checklist, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Children’s Communication Checklist 2. The teachers were given two questionnaires, the teacher version of SDQ and DBC-24. Each family had further assessments using DAWBA and ADI-R. Each child had an ADOS assessment. The final diagnosis was reached by clinical consensus, (gold standard). Results: ADHD was diagnosed in 30% of the sample followed by ASD 28% and 6% were diagnosed with both. 55% have ADHD and ODD/CD and Anxiety disorder was diagnosed in 11.6%. Conclusions: The questionnaires used are not sensitive enough to detect or differentiate between any of the NDDS. ADHD is the commonest Neurodevelopmental diagnosis among children with mild lD. there is an urgent need for robust new screening tools post DSM 5 and ICD 11.


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