All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea and retinal microvascular characteristics: a brief review

Author(s): Ko-Huan Lin, Hong-Zin Lin, Yen-Po Lin, Fan-Chun Meng, Felicia Lin, Hsien-Tsai Wu, Gen-Min Lin

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes intermittent nocturnal hypoxemia and is associated with obesity, diabetes, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension, possibly leading to micro- and macro-vascular disease. OSA has been associated with higher risk of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of traditional risk factors and severity of atherosclerosis. Microvascular disease may be a potential mediator for the association of OSA with clinical CVD. However, evidence for the association between OSA and microvascular dysfunction is conflicting. Since the retinal microvasculature is structurally and functionally similar to microvasculature elsewhere in the body and can be directly visualized via ophthalmoscopy, several studies have assessed the relationship of OSA with retinal microvascular characteristics but shown inconsistent results. Notably, the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) recently revealed that the associations of OSA severity with retinal microvascular signs may differ by sex. Moderate/severe OSA was associated with retinal vascular calibers in men, but not women.


Full-Text | PDF

Share this       

antalya escort

izmir rus escort

bursa escort bayan

antalya escort bayanlar

izmir escort

porno indir

porno izle

mobil porno

eskişehir escort

burdur escort

bartın escort

havalandırma

türk takipçi satın al

smmabi.com

takipbonus.com

izmir escort

bursa escort

türk porno

escort bayan

yabanci porno

takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

instagram takipçi satın al

instagram beğeni satın al

instagram takipçi kazan

takipçi satın al

instagram takipçi satın al

smm panel

instagram takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

instagram takipçi hilesi

tiktok takipçi hilesi

türk takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al spotify

tiktok takipçi satın alma

ucuz takipçi satın al

tiktok takipçi satın al

instagram unfollow

paper io

agario

oversatt

Elektronik Sigara