All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Abstract

Effects and Therapeutic Use of TMS in Psychiatric Disorders: An Evidence-Based Review

Author(s): Escribano BM, Medina Fernandez FJ, Caballero Villarraso J, Feijoo M, Aguera E, Tunez I

Objective

Recently we found that chronic immobilization stress (CIS) induced low levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) and hypoactive glutamatergic signaling in the mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), which was closely related with Glu-Gln cycle. Moreover, Gln-supplemented diet ameliorated CISinduced deleterious changes. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the effects of CIS and Gln supplementation on Glu-Gln cycle-related proteins to understand underlying mechanisms.

Methods

Using CIS-induced depression mouse model, we confirmed depressive behaviors caused by CIS and antidepressant property of Gln-supplementation with behavioral test and blood corticosterone assay. We examined expression of eleven proteins involving Glu-Gln cycle in the PFC.

Results

CIS decreased glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) 3, SNAT5, and mature SNAT2, suggesting excitotoxicity in synaptic cleft and shortage of Glu and Gln in astrocytes and neurons. Gln-supplementation did not affect non-stressed group, but significantly increased SNAT1 and SNAT3, which are the major Gln transporter in neurons and astrocytes respectively, as well as the mature SNAT2, implicating increasing transportation of Gln into neurons.

Conclusion

As a result, we confirmed that CIS disturbed Glu-Gln cycle toward shortage of Glu and Gln levels in astrocytes and neurons, but Gln supplementation changed Glu-Gln cycle toward facilitating translocation of Gln into neurons for glutamatergic signaling. Moreover, these results also supported the antidepressant property of Gln.


Full-Text | PDF

Share this       

antalya escort

izmir rus escort

bursa escort bayan

antalya escort bayanlar

izmir escort

porno indir

porno izle

mobil porno

eskişehir escort

burdur escort

bartın escort

havalandırma

türk takipçi satın al

smmabi.com

takipbonus.com

izmir escort

bursa escort

türk porno

escort bayan

yabanci porno

takipçi satın al

takipçi satın al

instagram takipçi satın al

instagram beğeni satın al

adana escort

takipçi satın alma

izmir escort

konya escort

instagram takipçi satın al

porno

görükle escort

ataşehir escort

takipçi satın al

esenyurt escort

adana escort

izmit escort

takipçi satın al spotify

konya escort

bursa escort

tiktok takipçi satın al

instagram keşfet satın al

ankara escort

antalya escort

escort feke

instagram takipçi

smm paneli

escort istanbul

twitter takipçi satın al

paper io

agario

oversatt

Elektronik Sigara