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Central Sensitization: A Pathogenic Mechanism in Complex Undefined Diseases

Author(s): Joaquim Fernandez-Sola

There is a common perception that complex undefined diseases manifested with diverse combination of symptoms and a difficult clinical diagnosis have a possible common physiological mechanism of disease production.

Physical or cognitive fatigue, widespread pain without arthritis, sleep, mood and autonomic disturbances as well as multiple intolerance involving drug, food, chemical agents, electromagnetic fields or other environmental factors may be included in this category.

Along last three decades, the existence of central sensitivity as a well established common pathogenic mechanism involved in abnormal symptom development emerged in diverse areas as pain, fatigue, food and environmental intolerance, as well as in the global chronic disease epidemic. The common fact of all of these disorders is a deregulation of the central control mechanisms at the limbic brain system. This may relate to amplification of pain and fatigue perception and disturbance of environmental tolerance and control of circadian rhythms and mood. This deregulation causes amplification of central somatosensory perception, but also a decrease of nociceptive inhibitory outputs. The final result is a chronic condition with central hyperexcitability and systemic disabling symptoms highly difficult to manage.
This article comments on the current significance to evaluate central sensitization symptoms and to consider these mechanisms in the development of complex diseases, as well as in the global chronic disease epidemic. We propose to include central sensitization to structuring a multidisciplinary concept addressed to improve scientific comprehension and clinical management of diseases, as well as future research directions on this field.


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