Relationships of Subjective Insomnia and Sleep Duration with Depression, Anxiety, and Pain Problems in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderAuthor(s): Chien-Chuan Wang, Yu-Yu Wu, Yi-Hsin Yang, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
Objective: This study examined the relationships of subjective insomnia and short and long nocturnal sleep duration with depression, anxiety, and pain problems in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Methods: A total of 469 children and adolescents (97 girls and 372 boys; age, 6–18 years) who had received a clinical diagnosis of ADHD completed the eight-item Athens Insomnia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory-Taiwan Version, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-Taiwanese Version, and a questionnaire about sleep duration, pain-related dysfunction, and the severity of perceived pain. Their parents provided information on the children’s current ADHD and oppositional symptoms, rated on the abridged Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Scale, Version IV. Multiple regression was conducted to examine the relationships of subjective insomnia and sleep duration with depression and anxiety. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationships of subjective insomnia and sleep duration with pain-related dysfunction and the severity of perceived pain.
Results: Subjective insomnia was positively associated with depression, anxiety, pain-related dysfunction, and severe perceived pain in the study population. Short nocturnal sleep duration was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and perceived pain. Long nocturnal sleep duration was positively associated with anxiety and perceived pain.
Conclusion: Insomnia and short and long nocturnal sleep duration are associated with depression.