Research Article - (2020) Volume 10, Issue 3
Emotional Intelligence, Social Competence and Transformational Leadership Qualities of Secondary School Principals in Region XII
- Corresponding Author:
- Samsudin N Abdullah
Professor, Master Teacher II
Esperanza National High School, Esperanza
Sultan Kudarat, 9806, Philippines
E-mail: [email protected]
This study was conducted to investigate how the emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence (SC) of principals are linked to their transformational leadership qualities (TLQ). Descriptive correlational research design was employed to give good analysis, interpretation and implication of data. Principals’ EI, SC and TLQ were obtained by administering 2 sets of survey questionnaire such as self-version answered by 15 principals and peer-version rated by 333 teachers. Frequency, percentage, mean, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson r were applied to describe the collected data. Findings revealed that principals’ assessment on their EI, SC and TLQ was significantly higher than the teachers’ rating. Principals’ TLQ are not influenced by their age, gender, tribe, religion and administrative experience. However, their educational attainment has a significant effect on their TLQ. Principals’ high level of EI and SC are likely to improve their TLQ. This study proved that EI and SC are truly determinants of principals’ TLQ. Thus, EI and SC development programs should be institutionalized by the Department of Education (DepEd) to enhance principals’ socio-emotional skills. In return, quality of students’ learning outcomes will be expected due to principals’ high level of TLQ.
Emotional intelligence, Social competence (SC), Transformational leadership qualities, Secondary school principals
The world is constantly changing and leadership is no exception. Old ways of doing things are being replaced, improved and sometimes, destroyed due to modernization . Ever increasing global standards relative to the quality of graduates, workforce and entrepreneurship have driven school leaders to focus on student academic preparation. The major antecedent of outstanding school performance to include the quality of learning outcomes is the education leaders’ socio-emotional competence. Leaders with high level of socio-emotional skills accomplish goals that matter most, inspire teachers to join them in working toward those objectives, and leave a long-lasting legacy for the school .
The ultimate responsibility of principals is to ensure the readiness of schools to adapt dynamic environment and accept the challenges of increased demands of global transition. To do this  stressed that school principals must be transformational leaders who motivate teachers to do more than what is expected of them by raising awareness on the importance of gaining organizational commitment and supporting the common goals and priorities of the organization  added that transformational school leaders persuade both the teachers and students to realize better academic achievement.
Persuading teachers and students to perform to the highest level of their knowledge and skills can be done by building and sustaining reciprocal family and community partnerships and by leveraging those partnerships to cultivate inclusive, caring and culturally responsive school communities. Teachers are motivated and willing to explore modern pedagogies when they trust their school leaders to support them. Students are inspired to stay connected to the school when they trust their teachers that they can give them a wide repertoire of knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA). Parents are eager to support school programs and activities when the principal and teachers have built trusting relationships with them  stressed that trust is the foundation of all relationships. A study  added that trust is the most solid building block of leadership. Increased organizational and employees’ productivity can be realized when school administrator fosters a strong sense of trust with the teachers, students, parents and other stakeholders.
On the other hand, socio-emotional competence is the ability to interact with others, regulate one’s own emotions and behavior, solve problems, and communicate effectively with people of diverse backgrounds . The concept of socio-emotional competence and its connections to the leadership skills of school administrators have been the focus of a wide range of current researches as a result of incessant changes in the educational system. However, splitting socio-emotional construct into emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence (SC) and linking them to transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) have scarcely been conducted . This research is a follow-up study to  purposely to have a detailed investigation and discussion of how principals’ EI and SC are related to their TLQ. This also comprehensively discussed how the principals’ personal factors influence their TLQ. Findings of the present study can provide doable recommendations that can be institutionalized by the Department of Education (DepEd) to enhance the EI and SC of school principals and would-be school administrators.
It clearly defines the implementation of Alternative Delivery Modes (ADM’s) as per Article XIV says that the State shall protect and promote the right of every citizen to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all . As mandated by the Philippine constitution, the DepEd is now challenged on the deployment of modern technologies; digital learning tools; home-based learning modules; and most especially the forthcoming nonphysical conduct of classes. With regards to this, leadership skills of principals are so much desired to help educational institutions negotiate the maze of new normal setup of school community without sacrificing the delivery modes of quality education. Due to the massive school closures on March 15, 2020 due to the alarming COVID-19 pandemic, the DepEd need transformational school leaders who persuade teachers to initiate ADM’s such as preparing learning modules and pedagogies suitable for online, home-schooling strategies, minimal face-to-face teacher-students’ interaction and other nonphysical modes of conduct of classes for the School Year 2020-2021  referred transformational leadership as the leader moving the followers beyond immediate self-interests through idealized influence (charisma), inspiration, intellectual stimulation, or individualized consideration. He added that transformational leadership elevates the followers’ level of maturity, ideals and concerns for achievement, self-actualization, and wellbeing of others, the school and society. A study  stated that school administrators should possess transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) that can assist teachers to implement ADM’s to ensure the safety and welfare of both teachers and students with quality teachinglearning interactions.
This study was being improved from the previous research of  to examine the claim of  that there is a link between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence which will result to school principals’ effectiveness. Further, a study  claims that socio-emotional competence and transformational leadership of education leaders are significantly related with each other. This follow-up research was in response  to suggestion that similar study will be conducted to investigate the link between social-emotional competence and transformational leadership of school administrators. What made this new study interesting was that it had a big twist wherein socio-emotional competence was split into emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence (SC) with carefully chosen indicators of EI, SC and TLQ and the survey questionnaires were based from different references to give more reliable results. The results of the investigation are very timely to give doable recommendations that can be institutionalized by the DepEd to improve education leaders’ EI and SC. In return, their TLQ will be likely to improve. This is what the new normal situation of the school community needs among school principals amidst COVID-19 crisis , as cited in a study , defined emotional intelligence as the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions. Emotional intelligence (EI) of principals relative to self-awareness; self-regulation; motivation; empathy; and social skills served as the first independent variable of the study. A study  stressed that social competence has been described as the interpersonal knowledge and skills to deal effectively with people of diverse backgrounds. Social competence (SC) of principals in terms of self-management; interpersonal knowledge and skills; positive selfidentity; cultural skills; planning and decisionmaking skills; and adapting social values served as the second independent variable of the study. Transformational leadership qualities refer to the charismatic attributes or characteristics to inspire and motivate people to become good followers and sooner become leaders too. Transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of principals pertaining to compassion; feedback; achievement; commitment; performance; empowerment; communication; inspiration; and management potential served as the dependent variable of the study. Personal factors of principals with respect to age, gender, civil status, tribe, religion, administrative experience and educational attainment served as the intervening variable of the study Figure 1.
Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to investigate how the emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence (SC) of principals are linked to their transformational leadership qualities (TLQ). It also examined the influence of principals’ personal factors to their TLQ. Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of secondary school principals in terms of age, gender, civil status, tribe, religion, administrative experience and educational attainment?
2. To what level is the emotional intelligence (EI) of secondary school principals relative to:
2.4 Empathy; and
2.5 Social Skills?
3. To what level is the social competence (SC) of secondary school principals in terms of:
3.2 Interpersonal Knowledge and Skills;
3.3 Positive Self-identity;
3.4 Cultural Skills;
3.5 Planning and Decision-making Skills;
3.6 Adapting Social Values?
4. To what level is the transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of secondary school principals pertaining to:
4.8 Inspiration; and
4.9 Management Potential?
5. Is there a significant difference between self-assessment and peer-assessment on the emotional intelligence (EI), social competence (SC) and transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of secondary school principals?
6. Is there a significant influence of secondary school principals’ personal factors to their transformational leadership qualities (TLQ)?
7. Is there a significant relationship of transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of secondary school principals and their:
7.1 Emotional Intelligence (EI); and 7.2 Social Competence (SC)?
Scope and Limitation
There are seventeen (17) regions in the Philippines. The locale of this study was in Region XII that has 9 different divisions such as Cotabato City Division, Kidapawan City Division, Tacurong City Division, Koronadal City Division, General Santos City Division, Cotabato Division, Sultan Kudarat Division, South Cotabato Division and Sarangani Division. Only two big public high schools per division were randomly chosen, a total of fifteen (15) public high schools, which served as respondent-schools since Tacurong City Division, Kidapawan City Division and Koronadal City Division had only one public high school whose population is at least 1,500 students which was the main criteria for the schools to be classified as big schools.
• Research design
This study was a descriptive correlational research since it investigated the relationship of principals’ emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence (SC) to their transformational leadership qualities (TLQ). It also examined the influence of principals’ personal factors to their TLQ.
Two (2) types of respondents randomly chosen were considered in this study, to wit: school administrators and teachers who were tasked to assess the former’s EI, SC and TLQ.
• Sampling techniques
Complete enumeration to all school administrators of the respondent-schools was done. Slovin’s equation (1960) as cited by  was employed to determine the total number of samples of teachers. The formula is as follows:
Where n=sample size; N=population size; e=desired margin of error @ 5%.
From the desired sample, stratified sampling technique using the proportional allocation formula was used to find the sample of teachers from each school. The proportional allocation formula is as follows:
Proportional allocation formula:
where S = sub-sample; n1 = sub-population; n = sample size; N=total population.
Simple random sampling using fishbowl method was utilized to determine the actual teacherrespondents per school. Table 1 presents the population and sample distribution of the study.
• Research instrument
The research instrument used in this study was a survey questionnaire composed of four (4) parts. Part I was a researcher-made checklist that determined the demographic profile (personal factors) of principals in terms of age, gender, civil status, tribe, religion, administrative experience and educational attainment. Part II was modified from the book  and it determined the level of principals’ emotional intelligence (EI) relative to self-awareness; self-regulation; motivation; empathy; and social skills. Part III was revised from the study  and it determined the level of principals’ social competence in terms of selfmanagement; interpersonal knowledge and skills; positive self-identity; cultural skills; planning and decision-making skills; and adapting social values. Part IV was improved from the research  and it determined the level of principals’ transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) pertaining to compassion; feedback; achievement; commitment; performance; empowerment; communication; inspiration; and management potential. Other survey questionnaires were also considered to come up with the best indicators and statements of the three (3) main variables of the study.
The research instrument which was based on the five-point Likert scale ensured that it really jibed with the objectives of the study. It had two classifications such as self-version answered by the principals and peer-version accomplished by the teachers. It was validated in terms of content, grammar and style. The researcher presented the initial drafts of the research instrument composed of four (4) parts with two versions such as selfversion (Four parts) and peer-version (Three parts only since Part I is for principals only) to the research experts for necessary corrections of the style, indicators and statements of the main variables involved in the study. Upon revision or modification of all indicators and statements, the research instrument, together with the validation instrument established , was again distributed to the panel of jurors to give their insights about the research instrument. After the validation process, pilot-testing was conducted to determine the internal consistency of the indicators and statements. School administrators of five (5) public high schools of Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM) and twenty five (25) teachers of Sapakan National High School, Sapakan, Sultan Sa Barongis, BARMM who had similar characteristics with the target respondents served as preliminary respondents of the study. School principals and teachers who were part of the validity and reliability tests of the research instrument were not part of the final respondents of the study.
A study  stressed that validity and reliability of the research instrument should be ensured before data gathering activities. They added that validity is the degree to which a research instrument measures what it intends to measure and performs as it is designed to perform. Reliability refers to the degree to which a research instrument yields consistent results.
• Statistical treatment
Systematic tabulation, analysis and interpretation of data taken from the school principals and teachers were done in Microsoft Excel embedded with QI Macros application. Summarized data were presented through tables. In response to the objectives of the study, descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and weighted mean together with inferential statistics like t-test, one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pearson-Product Moment Correlation (Pearson r) were employed. More specifically, to describe the demographic profile (personal factors) of school principals, frequency and percentage were used. To determine the levels of school principals’ emotional intelligence (EI), social competence (SC) and transformational leadership qualities (TLQ), weighted mean was used. To determine if there is a significant difference between selfassessment and peer-assessment, t-test was applied. To examine the influence of school principals’ personal factors, ANOVA was employed. To determine the relationship of EI and SC to the TLQ of school principals, Pearson r was applied.
Results and Discussion
• Demographic profile of secondary school principals
Most or 33% of principals of big public high schools are on the retiring age of 60 – 65 years old; 53% are males; 100% are married; 33% are Ilonggo; 60% are Roman Catholic; 46% are less than 13 years as school administrators; and 40% are doctoral degree holders who had already served the Department of Education (DepEd) as classroom teachers before they were appointed as school heads. This finding signifies that secondary school principals in Region XII, Philippines are “seasoned” and “skilled” education leaders and this is manifested by their length of service in the DepEd from ordinary classroom teachers to school administrators as well as the educational attainment they have received.
• Emotional intelligence of secondary school principals
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability of principals to recognize and manage their feelings in positive ways to release anxiety, irritation and distress so that they can connect effectively with people of diverse backgrounds, overcome trials and resolve conflict without hurting the feelings of others. Table 1 presents the level of EI of secondary school principals.
Table 1: Population and Sample Distribution of Respondents.
|5||General Santos City||2||437||2||72||74|
As shown in Table 2, the overall mean of 3.84 described as “High” indicates that principals are emotionally intelligent. This means that they are able to manage their emotions and understand the feelings of teachers. In other words, they are able to build strong relationships with teachers, parents and other major stakeholders to help the schools achieve the desired goals. They are also able to read complex social situations and are adept in demonstrating insightful thoughts about others’ undertakings, opinions and objectives. As also found out, school principals strongly believe that they are highly intelligent in managing their emotional states and in dealing with others’ feelings. This is indicated by the self-rating of 4.51 described as “Very High”. Teachers rated their principals’ EI as “High” only as indicated by a mean of 3.81. This implies that principals are very confident that they can handle their emotions in the height of their anger. However, teachers don’t totally agree and perceive their principals’ EI as high only.
Table 2: Level of EI of Secondary School Principals.
|Indicators||Principals’ Rating (n = 15)||Teachers’ Rating (n = 333)||Combined Rating (n = 348)|
|5||Social Skills||4.48||Very High||3.73||High||3.76||High|
|Overall Mean||4.51||Very High||3.81||High||3.84||High|
Legend: 4.20 – 5.00 – Very High; 3.40 – 4.19 – High; 2.60 – 3.39 – Moderately High 1.80 – 2.59 – Low; 1.00 – 1.79 – Very Low
In particular, principals obtained a highest mean of 4.03 described as “High” in motivation. This signifies that they are motivated to accomplish organizational goals and they are inspired to act in the service of both teachers and students. In different manner, the least rated indicator of EI is acquired by social skills with a mean of 3.76 described also as “High”. This finding indicates that principals are skilled in public relations particularly in associating with teachers of different needs and priorities. However, they are advised to develop their ability in reading people’ moods, feelings or non-verbal cues in order to develop their abilities in social adaptation. In connection with this finding  stressed that emotionally intelligent leaders can better understand and motivate others through proper management of their feelings, impulses and sentiments. A study  supports the aforesaid finding when she mentioned that emotionally intelligent leaders understand their people and help them recognize their strengths and weaknesses.
Similar to this, a study  mentioned that motivated administrators are among those who readily make more sacrifices to meet organizational goals. Further, a study  cited that the most motivated leaders have inspired and persistent followers. Hence, the two authors stressed that anyone who’s in a leadership role should understand how employees are motivated and what he can do as a leader to incessantly keep his followers inspired and determined to achieve their dreams. They both suggested that education leaders should build their inner strength so that their personality as a foundation of their power will serve as the best motivation for the teachers to dream big.
This finding also conforms to the notion of a study  when they noted that social skills can be used to persuade, lead, negotiate and settle disputes for cooperation and teamwork. A study  stressed that social skills play a fundamental role in handling and reading social situations and networks. Thus, a study  stressed that school administrators should be skilled in sensing and anticipating teachers’ reactions. They added that gathered feedbacks from the teachers and stakeholders can be considered as best sources of stimulus in managing one’s emotions. It is indeed stressed by this study that in hiring teachers, emotional intelligence should be given great emphasis since school administrators usually emanate from ordinary teachers. Consequently, the success of the schools will not be sacrificed when only emotionally intelligent teachers are appointed as school leaders.
• Social competence of secondary school principals
Social competence (SC) is the ability of principals to build a resilient, deep, or close relationship or association with people of different perspectives. It is their ability to acquire lessons from past experiences and apply those lessons to the changes in social interactions. The level of principals’ SC is presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Level of SC of Secondary School Principals.
|Indicators||Principals’ Rating (n = 15)||Teachers’ Rating (n = 333)||Combined Rating (n = 348)|
|2||Interpersonal Knowledge and Skills||4.59||Very High||3.81||High||3.84||High|
|3||Positive Self-identity||4.69||Very High||4.07||High||4.10||High|
|4||Cultural Skills||4.52||Very High||3.86||High||3.89||High|
|5||Planning and Decision-making Skills||4.64||Very High||3.97||High||4.00||High|
|6||Adapting Social Values||4.80||Very High||3.99||High||4.02||High|
|Overall Mean||4.61||Very High||3.93||High||3.96||High|
Legend: 4.20 – 5.00 – Very High; 3.40 – 4.19 – High; 2.60 – 3.39 – Moderately High 1.80 – 2.59 – Low; 1.00 – 1.79 – Very Low
Table 3 reveals that the overall mean of 3.96 described as “High” indicates that principals are socially competent. This means that they are endowed with interpersonal relationship particularly in leading the group of people with various experiences. Further, they are able to socially take teachers’ varied opinions and feelings. They are expert in applying their past experiences to have effective community partnerships. They are able to associate with different kinds of people without pretense and doubt. Further, teachers assessed their principals’ SC as “High” and this is manifested by a mean of 3.93. However, principals insist that their SC is “Very High”. This implies that what is best for school principals is not yet enough for the teachers. Teachers always see some things to be improved by the principals in terms of their interpersonal relationship. In layman’s language, not all actions of the principals conform to the expectations of the teachers from them.
Specifically, the highest mean of 4.10 is acquired by positive self-identity. This indicates that principals are able to recognize their potentials and qualities as leaders, especially in relation to needs of the organization. They anticipate success in their social encounters with other people of different backgrounds. In other words, they have a sense of competence, personal power, self-worth, and purpose to manage the schools and stakeholders. However, they need to nurture their interpersonal knowledge and skills since they obtained a least mean of 3.84 from this indicator. They are advised to improve their behaviors and tactics to interact with others to start from communication and listening to attitudes and deportment to the organization.
In connection with this finding, a study  stressed that to be a successful social member of human society, one should be socially competent. He added that socially competent individuals have been described as those who engage in satisfying interactions and activities with peers. A study  noted that socially competent individuals are bestowed with personal knowledge and skills which are effective tools to deal proficiently with many choices, challenges, and opportunities.
Said finding is asserted by a study  when they mentioned that people who have a positive sense of worth and competence will result to social acceptance and success. They added that an individual with low self-identity or self-esteem, on the other hand, can be trapped in a cycle of feelings of failure and rejection. In addition, a study  emphasized that administrators play a significant role in facilitating the growth of employees’ positive self-identity. He suggested school principals should design a schoolbased program or activity that will enhance teachers’ positive self-identity. He further noted that nothing will happen in an organization, institution or business without its people. Working effectively with group of diverse people is the ultimate focus of social competence of school leaders. Socially competent principals have teachers with optimistic reactions to all school programs and activities for the welfare of the whole studentry. In return, teachers with optimistic outlooks in life will probably produce students with self-reliance to succeed.
A study  supports the said finding when he noted that once the leaders have learned new social knowledge and skills, they need to know when to use them, where to use them, and how to choose from among them particularly in dealing with different types of teachers. He suggested that school administrators should utilize a multitude of strategies and practices to enhance their social knowledge and skills as well as their teachers’ interpersonal skills.
Since social competence is indexed by effectiveness and appropriateness in human interaction and relationships, DepEd officials should initiate annual intervention programs that enhance teachers’ and principals’ morale and social awareness adaptation. Further, school administrators should be flexible in handling organizational change. They should be considerate of teachers’ ups and downs. In return, teachers are encouraged to develop their strengths to the fullest and do something to overcome their weaknesses.
• Transformational leadership qualities of secondary school principals
Transformational education leaders have an emphasis on inspiring teachers to support each other and feel glad for the success of others and for the accomplishment of the school as a whole. They build trust, admiration and loyalty among the teachers, parents and students. The next table presents the level of transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of principals.
As shown in Table 4, the overall mean of 4.00 described as “High” means that principals demonstrate effective transformational leadership qualities (TLQ). This implies that they are not only concerned and involved in the process of achieving the school’s vision and mission; but they are focused on helping every teacher to succeed as well. In other words, they are transformational leaders who motivate teachers to be good followers and soon become leaders too equipped with charismatic attributes or characteristics of inspiring different kinds of people. The table also indicates that teachers rated the TLQ of their principals as “High” only and this is signified by a mean of 3.97. However, this rating is underestimated by the principals who strongly believe that their TLQ are “Very High” as shown by a mean of 4.70. This only implies that leaders cannot please everyone in an organization. There are those who are not supportive of their decisions and hardly give trust to their boss. This is a big challenge for the school leaders to use the opposing sides of few teachers to perform more than what is expected by their followers to help the schools improve its productivity. Teachers’ rating on the TLQ of principals implies that there are still leadership traits of school administrators not appealing to some teachers.
Table 4: Level of TLQ of Secondary School Principals.
|Indicators||Principals’ Rating (n = 15)||Teachers’ Rating (n = 333)||Combined Rating (n = 348)|
|9||Management Potential||4.73||Very High||3.96||High||3.99||High|
|Overall Mean||4.70||Very High||3.97||High||4.00||High|
Legend: 4.20 – 5.00 – Very High; 3.40 – 4.19 – High; 2.60 – 3.39 – Moderately High 1.80 – 2.59 – Low; 1.00 – 1.79 – Very Low
It is noted in Table 4 that principals received a highest mean of 4.13 described as “High” in commitment. This implies that principals’ compliance to their obligation to serve the schools can’t be belittled. They are also satisfied and comfortable with the level of dedication and atmosphere they feel in the schools they manage. Committed leaders have a good self-concept, strong self-esteem, and a balance between what they want with what they’re capable of. This is what the principals possess. Nevertheless, they need to foster kind-hearted tasks to help teachers regulate their emotions during stressful situations since they obtained a least mean of 3.84 described as “High” in compassion. They are also advised to show kindness and empathy to the teachers. Showing compassion to others means increasing happiness and satisfaction towards others.
This finding is strongly supported by a study , as stated by a study , that school principals with vision and passion are transformational leaders who can reach great achievements. A study  asserted that effective transformational leadership qualities of school principals do not just only improve learning opportunities and outcomes, but they are also able transform schools into successful learning institutions with clear sense of vision and direction. Said finding is in consonance with  who stressed that transformational leaders always go the extra mile. They added that these leaders are not contented with doing halfway. Instead they always focus on excellence. This notion means that organizational productivity demands on effective transformational leadership qualities of leaders
A study  support the above finding when they stressed that committed leaders have all the abilities to contribute to increased student achievements. A study  added that transformational leadership influences teachers’ professional commitment by raising their ideals and motivating them to go beyond self-interest to embrace school-community partnerships. A study  emphasized that commitment plays a very large role in determining whether a member will stay with the organization and zealously work towards organizational goals until his retirement in the service comes.
Said finding is agreed by the idea of a study  when he stressed that compassionate leaders genuinely care for the well-being of others and have a humane side that puts others’ needs before theirs. A study  added that compassionate leaders keenly and purposefully move others with a shared vision that plays on the positive, energizing and renewing power of hope. It is then affirmed by this study that effective transformational leadership qualities inspire teachers to acquire wide range of personal skills. Thus, working with a transformational leader who has a lot of good qualities can be a wonderful and uplifting experience since this leader puts passion and energy into everything and most importantly he cares about his followers and wants them to prosper.
• Difference between self-assessment and peer-assessment on the emotional intelligence, social competence and transformational leadership qualities of secondary school principals
Self-assessment and peer-assessment are conducted to provide feedbacks and improvement. They enable both the principals and teachers to independently assess their own and others’ characteristics or qualities. The difference between self-rating and peerrating on the emotional intelligence (EI), social competence (SC) and transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of the secondary school principals is presented in Table 5.
Table 5: Analysis on the Difference between Self-assessment and Peer-assessment on Principals’ EI, SC and TLQ.
|Variables||Principals’ Rating||Teachers’ Rating||Difference||Comp t-value||Critical t-value|
** - significant @ 0.01 level; two-tailed t-test
Table 5 shows that the first computed t-value of 27.021 is greater than the critical t-value of 2.59 @ 1% level of significance (two-tailed t-test). This simply means that the difference of 0.70 (shown in the 2nd row; 4th column) is proven highly significant. This implies that the leaders’ self-assessment on their EI is significantly higher than the followers’ evaluation. Studies indicate that most leaders overstate the value of their own qualities relative to others. If done religiously, leaders’ self-evaluation is a vital rating activity that can make the performance of the organization more effective and efficient. It can also provide several key benefits to the association. It allows administrators to be involved in the performance appraisal process, increases employee engagement, and helps superiors conduct more productive performance review discussions. Since self-assessment is completed by the individual being assessed, it can provide instant perception into moving towards a more productive and sustainable way of managing the organization, understanding leadership characteristics and using job assignments to develop valuable skills.
As also revealed in Table 5, the difference of 0.67 (shown in 3rd row; 4th column) between principals’ and teachers’ ratings on the former’s SC is highly significant as shown by the computed t-value of 27.922 which is greater than the critical t-value of 2.59 @ 1% level of significance (two-tailed t-test). This means that teachers’ appraisal is significantly less than what the principals perceived themselves regarding their SC. Peer appraisal is always lower than leader’s self-assessment. Yet, studies reveal that peer-assessment is quite accurate and more potential compared to the self-assessment particularly in predicting manner of leadership, performance and competence. Further, peerevaluation is appropriate for developmental studies, but it may not be prudent always to seek for pay, promotion, or job retention purposes. Peer-rating can be an effective evaluative method when applied to team-structured work settings.
Significant difference of 0.73 (shown 4th row; 4th column) between the two types of respondents’ perceptions on TLQ of principals is depicted in Table 5 as evident by the computed t-value of 35.601 which is greater than the critical t-value of 2.59 @ 1% level of significance (two-tailed t-test). This means that principals’ rating on their TLQ is highly significant from teachers’ rating. This implies that teachers want to see their principals as supporters and facilitators for the jointly determined school mission rather than as directors and managers of their own personal agenda. Thus, principals should improve the overall perceptions of teachers regarding their leadership traits by attending to the fundamental components inherent in quality relationships. If they cannot please everyone in the schools, at least they can minimize the number of teachers who are always against speaking against their back.
This study proved that self-assessment is always significantly higher than peer-assessment particularly in evaluating the EI, SC and TLQ of school administrators.
• Influence of personal factors of secondary school principals to their transformational leadership qualities
Many educational researches had been conducted to investigate the relationships of demographic profile characteristics of the school administrators to their leadership behaviors and management performance. These studies had mixed results and sometimes produced conflicting significance on the selected personal factors due to numerous internal and external factors in the workplace. Majority of those are leader self-assessment studies in which leaders are the ones who appraised themselves on how they believe they lead and manage, rather than studies in which followers actually rate their leaders . To determine whether or not the transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of school administrators are influenced by their personal factors, Table 6 is presented.
Table 6: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the Effect of Personal Factors of Principals on their TLQ.
|Personal Factors||Means||Comp F-ratios||Critical F-values|
|a. Doctoral Degree||4.93a|
|b. With Doctoral Units||4.67b|
|c. Master’s Degree||4.37c|
ns - not significant @ 0.05 level * - significant @ 0.05 level Means of distinct superscripts are significantly different
Table 6 indicates that age, gender, tribe, religion and administrative experience do not influence the TLQ of school administrators as evident by the computed F-ratios of 1.200, 1.438, 1.329, 0.922 and 0.784 which are all lesser than the critical F-values of 3.482, 4.667, 3.482, 3.587 and 3.478 @ 5% level of significance, respectively. This simply means regardless of the age, gender, tribe, religion and administrative experience of principals, their TLQ are comparable. In other words, the leadership skills of young school administrators are comparable with the leadership behaviors of retiring school principals. However, educational attainment is found to have a significant effect to their TLQ as shown by the computed F-ratio of 17.854 which is greater than the critical F-value of 3.885 @ 5% level of significance.
As shown in Table 6, the three different means pertaining to the educational attainment of school heads are of distinct superscripts. This simply indicates that, after applying the posthost analysis using Least Significant Difference (LSD), the three means are significantly different from each other. This signifies that principals who have a higher educational attainment particularly those who earned doctoral degrees are definitely more aware of their TLQ compared to those who have only earned doctoral units and master’s degrees  mentioned that many researchers have found positive relationships between education levels and job satisfaction. In addition, the study  has a contradicting result after finding no significant relationship with the factor of persistence concerning gender, education or marital status but did find that age may be a significant variable associated with perseverance in leading organization  findings are consistent with the above data after applying multiple correlation analysis. She found out that the better the socio-economic status, the higher the educational attainment and the longer the administrative experience of the principals, the better their performance in the workplace.
It is then confirmed by this study that the higher the educational attainment of school administrators, the better their transformational leadership qualities. Thus, it is strongly recommended that school principals should pursue doctoral degrees in educational management, administration and supervision to become more aware of their leadership and management potentials needed for successful social adaptation, employees’ satisfaction and quality of learning outcomes.
• Emotional intelligence, social competence and transformational leadership qualities of secondary school principals
Correlation analysis is presented in Table 4 to effectively describe, compare and attribute causality among emotional intelligence, social competence and transformational leadership qualities of secondary school principals.
As shown in Table 7, the first computed t-value of 34.46 (2nd row; 3rd column) which is greater than the critical t-value of 2.583 at 1% level of significance (two-tailed test) gives a sufficient evidence to claim that transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of school administrators are highly dependent on their ability to identify, assess, control or regulate their emotions. It is then affirmed by this study that effective TLQ require a wide repertoire of emotional intelligence (EI). This study validated the study  who found out that EI significantly influences the TLQ of leaders. He added that leaders who have a high level of emotional intelligence will have a greater effect on an organizational productivity than leaders with a low level of emotional intelligence. He further noted that transformational leadership traits possessed by leaders are having definite link with emotional intelligence. A study  argues that emotions play a central role in the leadership process, and that emotional intelligence contributes to the effectiveness of leaders. He added that transformational leaders are driven by a strong set of values and a sense of mission to motivate and mobilize people to the common good, satisfying their needs and valuing them. This study confirms that school principals will not become effective transformational leaders if they are not good in dealing with their emotions as well as handling the feelings of their followers. In other words, high level of EI begets effective TLQ. Thus, EI scores should be included in the criteria of selecting, hiring and promoting school administrators. In return, teachers who are led by transformational leaders can easily be inspired and motivated to perform their functions and duties to the best of their abilities and sooner or later inspired to follow the footsteps of their school administrators’ good leadership qualities.
Table 7: Correlation Analysis among EI, SC and TLQ of Secondary School Principals.
|Variables||r||Comp t-value||Critical t-value|
|1||EI and TLQ||0.88||34.46**||2.583|
|2||SC and TLQ||0.91||40.83**||2.583|
|3||EI, SC & TLQ||0.92||43.66**||2.583|
** - significant @ 0.01 level; two-tailed test
Significant relationship between the school heads’ social competence (SC) and transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) is strongly established by the computed t-value of 40.83 which is greater than the critical t-value of 2.583 at 1% level of significance (two-tailed test). This merely asserts that school heads’ TLQ are highly associated by their socio-emotional competence such as the adeptness on social services and ability in dealing with people of diverse racial backgrounds. Said finding is in confirmation with the study  who found out that socially competent leaders have a high level transformational leadership competence. He added that extra-ordinary competence in handling people of diverse backgrounds definitely translates to better TLQ. He further noted that effective TLQ demand social competence. This study found out that socially competent leaders are likely to have effective transformational leadership behaviors. In other words, school administrators who are competent in interpersonal relationship are those leaders who can easily inspire, motivate or persuade teachers to perform to the best of their abilities for the welfare of the students and the school as a whole.
Moreover, the 3rd computed t-value of 43.66 which is greater than the critical t-value of 2.583 at 1% level of significance (two-tailed test) strongly confirms that EI, SC and TLQ of principals are significantly linked with each other. This study proved that TLQ of school principals are highly attributed to the high level of their EI and SC. This finally means that that the higher the ratings of principals on EI and SC, the better they are in TLQ. Emotionally intelligent and socially competent school administrators definitely demonstrate effective transformational leadership qualities. Finally, school administrators’ EI and SC are proven to be determinants of their TLQ.
It is strongly stressed by this study that DepEd officials should revisit the National Qualifying Examination for School Heads’ (NQUESH) competencies and give more questions on emotional intelligence and social competence. As a result, future leaders endowed with transformational leadership skills will certainly be produced.
School administrators of big public high schools in Region XII, Philippines are seasoned and skilled administrators as a result of their length of service in the Department of Education (DepEd) from ordinary classroom teachers to school principals. Most of them are doctoral degree holders specialized in educational management, administration and supervision. The emotional intelligence (EI), social competence (SC) and transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of school administrators are high. Principals’ TLQ are not influenced by their age, gender, tribe, religion and administrative experience. However, their educational attainment has a significant effect on their TLQ. Principals who have higher educational attainment particularly those who earned doctoral degrees are definitely more aware of their TLQ compared to those who have only earned doctoral units and master’s degrees. Principals’ high level of EI and SC are likely to improve their TLQ. Thus, EI and SC are truly determinants of school administrators’ TLQ.
This study found out that emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence (SC) are significantly linked to the transformational leadership qualities (TLQ) of school administrators. Thus, the following recommendations were formulated:
1. EI and SC can be enhanced via trainings and development activities within the workplace. The ability to manage one’s emotions and the feelings of others has been proven to be a significant indicator of success at work. With regards to this, there should be intervention programs that could help school principals increase their EI and SC and consequently have a positive effect on their TLQ. Further, DepEd central office should annually organize leadership training conference wherein all school administrators will be given a chance to participate and share their leadership potentials that bring success in their schools.
2. Teachers are direct agents of change among students. They sooner or later develop as potential leaders. With this in mind, there is a need to select teachers wisely and invest in their spiritual, personal and professional development. Superintendents, supervisors and school principals should examine research-based EI and SC training programs and select one that would best fit teachers’ needs. Further, DepEd intervention programs regarding EI and SC shall be institutionalized to assist principals, wouldbe school administrators and teachers. Consequently, they would definitely increase their effectiveness as school leaders and classroom teachers.
3. DepEd selection committees should use Emotional Intelligence and Social Competence (EISC) Appraisal Tools to help identify would-be principals with high levels of EI and SC. The developed EISC Assessment Tool in this study should be adopted with necessary revisions to suit with the purpose of the evaluation. Those who want to get a copy of developed EISC Appraisal Tool in this study; the email address of the author is [email protected] yahoo.com.
4. Aspiring principals could benefit from seminar workshop on the importance of the role that EI and SC can play in their classroom management and leadership performance. In such case, DepEd higher offices should examine their current leadership training programs to assist future leaders become more aware of their management potentials. This could be done when they are acquainted of their personal and social knowledge and skills. Aside from the English Proficiency in the Qualifying Examination for teacherapplicants, there should be questions that will generate their emotional and social competencies. In return, teachers who are English proficient with high level of socio-emotional competence will definitely be hired. Subsequently, they can create healthier classroom environment and later develop as potential leaders.
5. Since the increased level of TLQ is attributed to the higher use of EI and SC, school leaders should do something in developing and strengthening their intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship skills. As a result, organizational effectiveness and followers’ satisfaction will definitely be observed.
6. School heads should be open to constructive criticism from their subordinates who actually observe their strengths and weaknesses. In such case, their ability to manage their emotions and handle people of various backgrounds will be enhanced.
The author sincerely acknowledges the faculty and staff of Esperanza National High School, Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat, Region XII, 9806 Philippines, particularly to his close friends, GANI M. MALIGA, MAT-MATHEMATICS (CAR), YIASSER P. ABUBAKAR, MAT-SOCIAL STUDIES, MARIBEL M. TORREÅA, MAEd- BIOLOGY and VENSCENT G. GEGONE, MAEd-CHEMISTRY. He also extends his special appreciation to the Senior High School (SHS) Department of Esperanza National High School especially to MA. ERLINDA A. IMBAT, PhD (CAR), SHS Academic Coordinator. Special thanks are also given to HENRY T. LEGASTE, EdD, Master Teacher I and Research Coordinator of Esperanza Central School, the author’s consultant.
ESKAK M. DELNA, EdD, CES, Principal IV of Esperanza National High School and her better half FARIDA D. DELNA, deserve the author’s full gratitude for their encouragement and motivation. Without them, the author would be successful as he is now. To HADJA AISHA A. MOHAMAD, the author’s loving mother, thank you very much. All of you are part of the success of this manuscript.
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