Inhaled loxapine for rapid treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an update

Author(s): Kimberly Nordstrom

Agitation is a common presenting problem in emergency departments and treatments currently range from de-escalation techniques to medications, in either oral or intramuscular forms. Oral medications can be diverted and have a relatively long delay of onset. This delay is problematic for agitated patients in that the agitation may escalate prior to onset of action of the medication. This can lead to the need for intramuscular medications or even physical restraints. Regarding intramuscular medications, they tend to work more quickly but are highly invasive. A new delivery system using loxapine is currently beingreviewed by the US FDA for use in agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Staccato® loxapine offers rapid delivery of loxapine by inhalation into deep lung tissue, allowing for rapid absorption into system circulation.


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